There, Union troops led by General William S. Rosecrans forced the retreat of the Confederates under General Braxton Bragg.… Battle of Stones River The battle was fought from December 31, 1862 until January 2, 1863. The soldier, Asa Lewis of the 6th Kentucky Infantry, had served with distinction and only went AWOL to assist his widowed mother on the family farm. This places the charge at Stones River behind only Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg in terms of attacker casualty percentage. The Battle of Stones River, fought between December 31, 1862, and January 2, 1863, was a tactical draw but proved to be a strategic northern victory. The Union held off the assault easily, devastating the Confederates. Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne, leading the division supporting McCown’s attack, conducted the right wheel as Bragg ordered and unexpectedly found himself in the front line. The somewhat positive result of Bragg’s unforced retreat provided an important boost to Northern morale, turned international opinion further against the Confederacy, and solidified the Federal hold on Tennessee. When the battles concluded on January 2, 1863, there were 12,900 casualties for the Union and 11,700 for the Confederates. As 1862 drew to a close, President Abraham Lincoln was desperate for a military victory. Shows the Confederates attacking Union soldiers, who are on slightly higher ground. Chickamauga, Shiloh, and Antietam had casualty rates of 29%, 26%, and 18%, respectively. There were over 23,000 casualties, giving the Battle of Stones River the highest percentage of casualties of any battle in the war. Depicts Major General William S. Rosencrans on a black horse directing the battle on the left side of the image. Battle of Stones River The Battle of Stones River was fought between December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863. Additionally, the axis of advance would push the Union soldiers closer to their reinforcements while pulling the Confederates away from theirs. This new attack was led by Patrick Cleburne along with two fresh divisions under Maj. Gen. Benjamin Cheatham and Maj. Gen. Jones Withers. - Polk fought under Bragg at the Battle of Stones River in late 1862 and once again Bragg's subordinates politicked to remove their army commander after an unsuccessful battle (the battle was tactically inconclusive, but Bragg was unable to stop the advance of the Union Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans Despite the tactical failures in the east and west, the grand strategy paid off for Rosecrans--Confederate general Braxton Bragg, commanding the forces in Tennessee, sent approximately one-sixth of his infantry to reinforce Vicksburg on December 16. This information was finally proved wrong late in the morning and Bragg ordered Breckinridge to join the main line on the western side of the river. Bragg knew that Rosecrans was going to be receiving reinforcements. Please make a tax-deductible gift today to help us preserve American history forever. Major General William Rosecrans and his Army of the Cumberland led the Union. When the Union right crumbled at around 8 A.M., Phil Sheridan suddenly found himself attacked from three sides, his 5,000 men trying to hold off over 10,000 Southern veterans. The thick, cedar forest was surrounded on three sides that collapsed with no Southern victory. The total area of the battlefield was about 4,000 acres. Bragg was only too willing to believe this news, and he confidently withheld a new assault and waited to take possession of an uncontested field. Just northwest of Murfreesboro along the West Fork is the Stones River National Battlefield, site of the Battle of Stones River, a major Civil War battle that was fought from December 31, … The Union won the battle. In fairness, if Bragg had attacked on New Year’s Day, he had no guarantee of success. In just a few hours, the fields and cedar thickets around the Tennessee village of Murfreesboro w… Bragg’s disinclination to renew the Confederate attack on January 1 allowed Rosecrans to strengthen his position and receive reinforcements. This battle was the culmination of the campaign in Middle Tennessee. Upon breaking through the first line, his men were instructed to wheel and drive to interdict Rosecrans’s supply line on the Nashville Turnpike. Help preserve American history forever with your tax-deductible year-end gift today! His battle plan had achieved its objectives but not its goal—the Union army still held a strong defensive position. The furious assault caught some of the defenders while they were cooking their own breakfast and shattered the Union line. Instead, Rosecrans stayed in place and assembled fresh reinforcements. There was also the Emancipation Proclamation to consider. While the American Battlefield Trust has worked to protect Stones River, development continues to threaten this hallowed ground. The opposing lines at Stones River spent the night of December 30 unusually close together. Unwilling to relieve his friend, Davis, now the Confederate president, instructed the General Joseph Johnston , commander of Confederate forces in the West, to relieve Bragg if he though it necessary. Union artillery fire at Confederate troops during the Battle of Stones River. Full title is: "Battle of Stone River. On the Union side, Major General William S. Rosecrans led 43,400 men while Confederate General Braxton Bragg led 37,712 men. The Battle of Stones River by William B. Kurtz After the Battle of Perryville, Kentucky in October 1862, Confederate General Braxton Bragg retreated with his Confederate soldiers back into Tennessee, eventually making his headquarters at the town of Murfreesboro, south of Nashville. The Battle of Stones River was fought December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, during the American Civil War (1861-1865). Meanwhile, Bragg left 10,000 irreplaceable veterans in the cold cedar forests and became the target of ridicule from his lieutenants as he bottled himself up for months in Tullahoma. Stones River National Battlefield. The American Battlefield Trust and our members have saved more than 53,000 acres in 24 states! While Wheeler was causing grief in his army’s rear, Rosecrans spent most of the 30th moving his men into position for the coming battle. Donate today to preserve Civil War battlefields and the nation’s history for generations to come. His stubbornness had robbed the Confederate assault of vital momentum. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. While the blood soaked battlefield was a killing field for both Union and Confederate forces, the combined casualties were … His armies were stalled, and the terrible defeat at Fredericksburg spread a pall of defeat across the nation. McCown was drawn away from the Wilkinson Turnpike as his men pursued the scattering Federals. Stones River, Battle of (1862–63).Stones River—also known as the Battle of Murfreesboro—was one of the costliest engagements of the Civil War in Tennessee. This was one of the deadliest battles of the war. Rosecrans, now holding a tight position with both flanks joined to Stones River, decided to extend his flank across to the eastern bank. Both times, the Southern army attacked first and caught the Union troops eating breakfast. It was located in a rich agricultural region from which Bragg planned to provision his army and a position that he intended to use to block a potential Federal advance on Chattanooga. Rosecrans’ army on the northwest side of the river was organized into three wings with three divisions each. Before Breckinridge redeployed, however, a courier arrived bearing word that another Union column was advancing east of the river. Murfreesboro was a small town in the Stones River Valley, a former state capital named for a colonel in the American Revolutionary War, Hardy Murfree. This bloody fight near Murfreesboro saw more casualties than any other Tennessee battle, though there was no clear winner. The Stones River watershed drains some 920 square miles (2,400 square km). Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. The battle of Stones River was devastating for both sides and, of all the major Civil War battles, this had the highest percentage of casualties suffered. The armies spent January 1 dressing their lines and tending to their wounded. Bragg’s plan called for an attack on the Union right flank with over 10,000 men. Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. The Battle of Stones River (also known as the Second Battle of Murfreesboro) was a battle fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Despite the ferocity of the first day’s assault, it was diluted by false information. Only reluctantly did Breckinridge did send his units into the Round Forest at 4 P.M., where they arrived too late to make an impact. This was untrue, and would have been discredited if Breckinridge had conducted proper reconnaissance. Great addition to library and research of Stones River. On January 2, Bragg ordered an assault of a heavily armed Union troops near a hill east of Stones River. The Confederates were under the command of General Braxton Bragg and the Army of Tennessee. Click here to learn more about the Trust's ongoing preservation efforts. The total area of the battlefield was about 4,000 acres. Interesting The Battle of Stones River Facts: The battle was fought from December 31, 1862 until January 2, 1863. Bragg’s 35,000 men were arranged into two corps of infantry. Review from Library Journal: Until now only three book-length studies of the bloody Tennessee battle near Stone's River existed, all old and none satisfactory by current historical standards. Subsequent to the battle at Stones River, the general would be dogged by persistent rumors that he had been pitifully inebriated during the fighting. Looked at in summary, the Battle of Stones River is similar to the Battle of Shiloh, which took place in Tennessee nine months earlier. Federal Identification Number (EIN): 54-1426643. The battle took place near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, along Stones River. As a result of the victory, the Union was able to use Nashville as a major supply depot throughout the course of the war. They hoped that the Confederates would not be able to shift reinforcements in time to meet the combined attacks of  Ambrose E. Burnside in Virginia, William T. Rosecrans in Tennessee, and Ulysses S. Grant in Mississippi. The Union lost two generals and the Confederates lost two. Visitors explore the impact of the Battle of Stones River through living history events, interpretive programs, and hiking or … Ultimate General: Civil War's newest update has added the Battle of Chancellorsville and Stones River. 81,000 soldiers fought in the battle. Stones River National Battlefield - Now within a sprawling suburb of Nashville, the park today is small by battlefield park standards today (the battle covered 4,000 acres at the time), even though its fighting was certainly as important and tragic as many of the larger sites. The blue line was eventually bent into a right angle along the Nashville Turnpike, but it was not broken. Rosecrans’s Union Army of the Cumberland and Bragg’s Confederate Army of Tennessee met on a battlefield outside of Murfreesboro on December 30. But the Confederates would inevitably unwind like a ball of string as they advanced.”. Battle of Stones River | | Published by Kurz & Allison at 76 & 78 Wabash Avenue in Chicago. "The history of the battle of Stone River" appears to the right of the map. Bragg responded by ordering Breckinridge to charge and pulverize this new position. The Battle for Eastern Tennessee The Battle of Stones River, sometimes called the Battle of Murfreesboro, was one of the most violent engagements of the Civil War. False information compounded the inadequacies of Bragg’s battle plan. The killing contributed to Breckinridge’s belief that Bragg did not have enough concern for the lives of his men. He had grown frustrated with Don Carlos Buell's indecisiveness. Why Stones River? Breckinridge was halted again while this report was investigated and invalidated. Reinforcements were slow to come to the aid of the Confederates, making it difficult to keep up a sustained attack. The Majority of our funds go directly to Preservation and Education. The battle took place near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, along Stones River. Gettysburg had a casualty rate of 31%. The Confederate assault on December 31 began before Rosecrans could put his plan in motion and thus forced the Union army to go on the defensive, but the flaws in Bragg’s plan reaped bloody consequences. After the failed charge on January 2, Bragg realized that he could not win another fight against Rosecrans’s strengthened army and elected to retreat back to Tullahoma, Tennessee. Following the failure of his Kentucky campaign the previous fall, Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg positioned his Army of Tennessee (34,000 strong) to protect the railroad line running southeastward from Nashville into the heart of the Confederacy . Sheridan’s division was pulled out of the line at 11 A.M. and allowed to replenish their ammunition. President Abraham Lincoln had recently given command to Rosecrans. Both generals decided the take the offensive the next day. Help save a crucial 22-acre tract on the battlefield where 14 African American soldiers earned the highest military honor in the land. Recommended Reading: No Better Place to Die: THE BATTLE OF STONES RIVER (Civil War Trilogy). Detailed map showing the Union's forces' first and second positions and the Confederate forces' position "on … With the Confederate line overlapping his right, Sheridan conducted a fighting withdrawal through a large cedar forest with limestone outcroppings, now known as "The Slaughter Pen," to avoid being outflanked. This important book covers the late 1862 campaign and battle in detail. After the December 31 fighting, Confederate cavalry operating in the Union rear reported that Rosecrans’s army was preparing to retreat. Although the Stones River Campaign, aka Battle of Stones River, was hailed as a Union victory, both sides limped off the battlefield to recover from the carnage. Shows info that other books have left out. The Slaughter Pen is pivotal within the story of Stones River. The Battle of Stones River was the result of the attempt by the Confederate Army to force the Union troops out of Tennessee. Although the battle itself was inconclusive, the Union Army's repulse of two Confederateattacks and the subsequent Confederate withdrawal were a m… Unfortunately for the Confederates, Bragg’s orders were almost impossibly idealistic. Only a hasty shifting of reinforcements protected Rosecrans’s position. 34 Alabama and the 8th Mississippi Confederate Infantry. In the weeks that followed, however, it began to take the shape of a Union victory. The Confederates struck first but the Union put up a strong defense. The staggering losses at Stones River compelled both armies to spend months trying to regain their strength and come to terms with the causes of the winter bloodshed. The Union was able to hold off a Confederate assault, although both sides saw very high percentages of casualties. Union troops had left Nashville on December 27th and were advancing toward the Confederates. Kids Encyclopedia Facts The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro (in the South, simply the Battle of Murfreesboro), was fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Colonel John Beatty’s Union brigade, composed of Midwestern troops from Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky, reinforce the right flank against Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne’s Confederates. Hardee no… Save History with Your Year-End Gift Today, Preserve 108 Acres of the Most Important Unprotected Battlefield Land, Save 40 Acres of the American Revolution Southern Theater, Kentuckians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation, Virginians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation, Battle of Stones River - Topographical Sketch. In the final months of 1862, Abraham Lincoln and General-in-Chief Henry Halleck decided to press the Confederacy on all fronts. Since neither side had swept the other from the field, the battle was a draw. Near Murfreesborough, Tenn." Seems to have been partially hand colored. Both of my Great Grandfathers Units are mention and shows the location during the battles. The Battle of Stones River was a tactical draw, but a strategic Union victory. Crittenden’s corps, with Stones River on one side, extended across the Nashville Turnpike. Breckinridge sent his men forward at 4 P.M. on January 2. Approximately 5,000 Confederates crossed half a mile of open field, torn from front and flank by massed artillery, and nearly broke the Union line in a desperate charge. Bragg’s disinclination … These casualty figures made the Battle of Stones River one of the bloodiest of the war. The Battle of Stones River (December 31, 1862–January 2, 1863) was a major engagement of the American Civil War fought 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Murfreesboro. In the battle, Confederate General Braxton Bragg and as many as 35,000 soldiers withdrew from Kentucky and took defensive positions in the city of Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Bragg’s position became untenable in the face of this new concentration. He was captured and Bragg insisted on putting him before the firing squad despite Breckinridge’s vehement protests. Show your pride in battlefield preservation by shopping in our store. Total casualties were over 24,000 men in a battle in which the total number of opposing forces was about 76,000. Instead, he distributed a whiskey ration—most welcome in the freezing weather—and ordered his men forward at dawn. To expand your appreciation for this pivotal battle, please consider these ten facts about the Battle of Stones River. A Hard Earned Victory The Battle of Stones River began on the last day of 1862 and was one of the bloodiest conflicts of the Civil War. The two had been at odds since an incident earlier that month, when a soldier in Breckinridge’s corps was executed for desertion. The following morning, the last one of 1862, would certainly be the last for many of them. With his initial attack stalled and the Union army stubbornly keeping the field, Bragg decided to strike on the other side of the line at 10 A.M. Battle of Stones River: Union General Rosecrans Versus Confederate General Bragg Steadily the rain had pelted down all day, and now as wintry winds and darkness ushered in another miserable night at the mercy of the elements, the battle-tried veterans of Perryville, both Blue and Gray, struggled to find what fitful sleep they could. Of the major battles of the war, Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties on both sides. Battle of Stones River: Union General Rosecrans Versus Confederate General Bragg Steadily the rain had pelted down all day, and now as wintry winds and darkness ushered in another miserable night at the mercy of the elements, the battle-tried veterans of Perryville, both Blue and Gray, struggled to find what fitful sleep they could. Over 1,800 attackers became casualties, roughly 36% of Breckinridge’s total force. Click to donate now. Great book on Stones River. Maj. Gen. The Battle of Stones River, although not as well known as either Shiloh or Antietam, surpassed both in terms of casualties. The Union had invaded Nashville and the Confederates were working on a plan to force the Union troops out of Tennessee. This was one of the deadliest battles of the war. Successful execution would require the massive attacking formation to maintain a cohesive shape as it changed direction across extremely difficult terrain—dense cedar thickets, stony outcroppings, rail fences—in the face of enemy fire. Four brigadier generals were killed in the battle. While Burnside met with disaster at Fredericksburg and Grant’s efforts against Vicksburg stalled, Rosecrans bemoaned a lack of supplies and did not advance until December 26. The Union victory gave the U.S. control of Nashville for the duration of the war. The day’s fighting would give it another name—“Hell’s Half-Acre.” Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk’s corps, its men exhausted after fighting against Sheridan, launched a series of piecemeal but violent attacks that failed to dislodge the Union defenders. Though a costly win, Rosecrans’ victory at Stones River secured Middle Tennessee for the Union for the remainder of the war. On the 31st, Breckinridge relayed reports intimating that there was a large Federal force massing for an attack on the eastern side of Stones River. In the words of historian Grady McWhiney: “Like a snowball, the Federals would pick up strength from the debris of battle if they retreated in good order. All through the war it was a center for strong Confederate sentiment, and Bragg and his men were warmly welcomed and entertained during the month of December. Stones River National Battlefield includes over 600 acres of preserved battlefield and a cemetery honoring those lost in one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. As part of Bragg’s attack force, John McCown did not want to reveal his position by the light of cook-fires on the morning of the 31st. Bragg’s decision to set up a headquarters far removed from the battlefield further added to the tactical confusion. Every purchase supports the mission. 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