• The infrahyoid muscles are four muscles located inferior to the hyoid bone, that connect it to the larynx, sternum and scapula. These muscles are surrounded by the prevertebral fascia of the neck, which is why they are commonly referred to as prevertebral muscles. It's possible to prevent a stiff neck. They all act to elevate the hyoid bone – an action involved in swallowing. Bilateral contraction flexes neck. The anterior neck muscles are a group of muscles covering the anterior aspect of the neck. This action opens the airways again and reestablishes breathing after swallowing. Muscles of the anterior neck (overview)- Yousun Koh. The splenius muscles are innervated by the posterior rami of middle and lower cervical spinal nerves. This action is convenient as it increases the venous return from the head to the superior vena cava. However, it is the back of the neck that is the most muscular. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: Vascular supply to this muscle is derived from branches of the occipital, posterior auricular, superior thyroid and suprascapular artery. Due to their small size, the function of these muscles is to only assists in lateral flexion of the head and to stabilize the cervical spine during movement. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. It arises from the costal cartilage of the first rib and the posterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum. Clinically Oriented Anatomy (7th ed.). Written by the Healthline Editorial Team. The muscle extends over the posterior aspect of the neck and the superior part of the thorax. That group comprises the muscles of the back (nape) and side of the neck. The rectus capitis lateralis is a small muscle that arises from the superior surface of the transverse process of the atlas (C1) and ascends superiorly to insert onto the inferior surface of the jugular process of occipital bone. To perform clinical neck treatment that is accurate and specific, the therapist needs to know the attachments and actions of the muscles of the neck.For example, to know where to place the palpating hand when applying deep tissue work into the neck, the manual therapist must know the attachments of the target muscle to be worked to be able to locate the target muscle accurately. Based on the orientation of its fibers, the trapezius is divided into three parts; descending, transverse and ascending part, each of them having distinct attachments. In conjunction with other infrahyoid muscles, the thyrohyoid functions to depress the hyoid bone following its elevation during the act of swallowing and vocalization. Reading time: 29 minutes. The function of the stylohyoid is to elevate the hyoid bone and retract the tongue, which facilitates deglutition because it pushes the food bolus towards the soft palate. The anterior vertebral muscles are a deep group of muscles located just anterior to the cervical vertebral column. It is composed of six pairs of muscles that span the space between the tips of the spinous processes of successive vertebrae. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. The muscle group of the head and neck is most directly influenced by the change to an upright posture. The muscle is composed of two bellies connected by an intermediate tendon, similar to the digastric muscle. The anterior belly is innervated by the nerve to mylohyoid, a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, while the posterior belly receives innervation from the digastric branch of the facial nerve. The function of the sternohyoid muscle is to depress the hyoid bone and larynx after it has been elevated by the suprahyoid muscles. Muscles of the neck: An overview: want to learn more about it? Just like the other joints in your body, your neck joints tend to wear down with age. In addition, the sternothyroid muscle can pull the thyroid cartilage away from the hyoid bone and further open the laryngeal inlet, which can aid forced inspiration. It goes obliquely through the side of the neck, breaking up it into posterior and anterior triangles and is an important muscle of neck. The rectus capitis is a short strap muscle that arises from the anterior surface of the lateral mass of atlas (C1 vertebra) and inserts on the basilar part of the occipital bone, anterior to the foramen magnum. When poor posture, injury, or trauma disrupt the balance between muscles and fascia, bones are forced out of position, causing muscles to spasm, range of motion to be limited and pain to develop as cervical and other nerves are affected. Its clavicular head originates from the medial third of the clavicle, while its sternal head arises from the manubrium of sternum. It arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C3-C6, and inserts onto the scalene tubercle and the superior border of the first rib. Reviewer: These muscles are mainly responsible for the movement of the head in all directions. 2. The suprahyoid muscles are a group of neck muscles located above the hyoid bone and all elevate this bone, while the infrahyoid muscles are … Its blood supply stems from the superior thyroid branch of the external carotid artery, and inferior thyroid branch of the thyrocervical trunk. Its blood supply stems from the ascending cervical branch of the inferior thyroid artery. THE MUSCLES IN HEAD AND NECK CAN BE GROUPED AS: FACIAL MUSCLES WHICH INCLUDES THE MUSCLES OF SCALP, EYE, LIP, NOSE AND EARS. Its blood supply stems from the branches of the lingual and superior thyroid arteries. The posterior aspect of the neck is covered by muscles that connect the skull to the spinal column and pectoral girdle. The trapezius muscle is innervated by the accessory nerve (CN XI). These upper back, shoulder and neck muscles travel in all directions which allows for greater range of motion and movement in the neck and shoulders. The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition (swallowing) and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx (voice box), and the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a solid foundation on which the tongue can move. The action refers to the action of each muscle from the standard anatomical position. The interspinales cervicis is the cervical part of the interspinales muscle group. The suprahyoid muscles are four muscles located superior to the hyoid bone. The other anterior neck muscles are below them, and most models have the platysma muscles cut away to show the deeper muscles. Even minor things, such as reading in bed or gritting your teeth, can strain neck muscles. The muscle is composed of a posterior and an anterior belly, connected by an intermediate tendon, which represents their common insertion point. Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. Last reviewed: November 24, 2020 Unilateral contraction causes ipsilateral flexion or contralateral rotation (tilts head toward same shoulder, or rotates face away), depending on action of other muscles. The nerve supply to the posterior scalene muscle is derived from the anterior rami of spinal nerves C6-C8, while its blood supply comes from the ascending cervical branch of the inferior thyroid artery and the transverse cervical branch of the thyrocervical trunk. All rights reserved. The sternohyoid then courses superiorly and medially to insert into the inferior border of the body of hyoid bone. © 2005-2020 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. The digastric muscle is a small muscle situated below the mandible, that extends from the mastoid process of temporal bone to the chin. These muscle strips travel superiorly and medially to insert onto the inferior surface of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Neck muscles are bodies of tissue that produce motion in the neck when stimulated. Last's anatomy: Regional and applied. Here are some of the key muscles attached to the cervical spine: Levator scapulae. The suboccipital muscles act to rotate the head and extend the neck. This group of muscles comprise the semispinalis, multifidus, and rotatores muscles. Shorten your studying time and make your life easier with our high-yield muscle anatomy charts! If spine is fixed, scalenes elevate ribs 1-2 and aid in breathing. Kenhub. Neck pain with mobility deficits: This is a stiff neck a person experiences after straining the neck muscles when sleeping in the wrong position or lifting heavy weights. Obliquus capitis superior also extends from the occiput to C1 while obliquus capitis inferior originates from C2 and attaches to C1. The muscle connects the atlas (the topmost vertebra…, Scalenus medius, also known as the middle scalene muscle, is a neck muscle that spreads from the posterior tubercles (back sections) of the transverse…, The scalenus posterior, also called the posterior scalene, is the smallest of the scalene muscles in the neck. The anterior scalene muscle is innervated by the anterior rami of the spinal nerves C4-C6, and vascularized by the ascending cervical branch of inferior thyroid artery. The omohyoid is a narrow muscle that connects the scapula to the hyoid bone. Read more. The blood supply for the digastric muscle is derived from the submental branch of the facial artery, and posterior auricular and occipital arteries. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. The muscles of the neck run from the base of the skull to the upper back and work together to bend the head and assist in breathing. The mylohyoid is innervated by the nerve to mylohyoid muscle that arises from the inferior alveolar branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3). Sinnatamby, C. S., & Last, R. J. The position of a muscle or group of muscles in the neck generally relates to the function of the muscles. There are a bunch of muscles in the back of your neck which help lift your head up. The suboccipital muscles are four small muscles found in the suboccipital region, deep to the semispinalis muscles. Muscle strains. The intertransversari colli represent the cervical portion of the intertransversarii muscles, which belong to the deepest layer of the intrinsic back muscles. It originates from the posterior surface of the styloid process of temporal bone and passes anteroinferiorly and medially to attach on the body of hyoid bone. It arises from the oblique line of the lamina of thyroid cartilage, and courses superiorly to insert onto the lower border of the greater horn and the adjacent body of hyoid bone. Read more. The nerve supply to the sternothyroid muscle is derived from the ansa cervicalis (C1-C3). Like other infrahyoid muscles, the function of the sternothyroid muscle is to depress the hyoid bone and larynx, and thereby open the laryngeal inlet and reestablish breathing after swallowing. Moore, K. L., Dalley, A. F., & Agur, A. M. R. (2014). Similar Images . The superficial neck muscles are the most external and include the platysma and the sternocleidomastoid. The sternocleidomastoid is a large, two-headed muscle of the neck. At the front, many of the outer muscles span … It then extends posterolaterally and inserts into the external surface of the second rib. The muscles of the neck are closely related to a number of important structures that pass between the thorax and the head, including major blood vessels, nerves and elements of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Generally, the main function of these muscles is positioning of the hyoid bone and coordination of the movements of the floor of the mouth and the hyoid bone while swallowing or vocalization. – The main function of the longus colli is to flex the neck. The heads come together and ascend diagonally to insert onto the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Its blood supply is derived from the sublingual, inferior alveolar and submental arteries. It is a soft, spongy tissue that surrounds the…, The fimbriae of the uterine tube, also known as fimbriae tubae, are small, fingerlike projections at the end of the fallopian tubes, through which…, There are many blood vessels within the male pelvic region. Together, the sternocleidomastoid muscles on both sides of the neck act to flex the neck and raise the sternum to assist in forced inhalation. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is innervated by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and anterior rami of spinal nerves C2 and C3. Rectus capitis posterior major and Rectus capitis posterior minor attach the inferior nuchal line of the occiput to the C2 and C1 vertebrae respectively. Like the digastric muscle, the function of the mylohyoid depends on its point of action. It originates from the skin and fascia overlying the region of the clavicle and passes superiorly along the neck. The geniohyoid is a short muscle that arises from the inferior mental spine of the mandible and runs posteroinferiorly to insert into the superior border of the body of the hyoid bone. Stiff neck from muscular problems is perhaps the most common cause of a stiff neck in modern society. Muscles of the Head and Neck. They move the head in every direction, pulling the skull and jaw towards the shoulders, spine, and scapula. Many are there to supply the lower half of the body but many supply the male reproductive…. The intertransversarii colli are innervated by the anterior and posterior rami of cervical spinal nerves, and vascularized by the occipital, deep cervical and vertebral arteries. The neck muscles can be separated into anterior (front) neck muscles and posterior (back) neck muscles. The superficial muscles of the posterior neck are the splenius muscles; the splenius capitis and splenius cervicis. The digastric muscle has dual innervation. These muscles connect within the neck and head, and many of them into the shoulders and back. The suprahyoid muscles are a group of four muscles located superior to the hyoid bone of the neck. The mylohyoid arises from the mylohyoid line on the inner surface of mandible, and inserts into the mylohyoid raphe and superior aspect of the body of hyoid bone. Muscles of the Anterior Neck. Wear a neck collar for a few hours to rest stiff neck muscles. (12th edition). It is divided into three parts: The muscle is innervated by the anterior rami of the spinal nerves C2-C6. Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we're here to help you pass with flying colours. The muscles of the head and neck help us perform many important actions such as movement, mastication (chewing), speech, and facial expression. The platysma is innervated by the cervical branch of facial nerve (CN VII), and vascularized by the submental branch of the facial artery, and suprascapular branch of the thyrocervical trunk. Gordana Sendic The neck muscles, including the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius, are responsible for the gross motor movement in the muscular system of the head and neck. (2011). The main function of the muscles of neck is head movement, but they also contribute to the maintenance of blood flow to the brain and holding the head upright. The trapezius, commonly referred to as the traps, are responsible for pulling your shoulders up, as in shrugging, and pulling your shoulders back during scapular retraction. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” Philadelphia, PA: Saunders. The most common causes of neck pain are strain or tension in the muscles of neck. These muscles can be divided into three layers; The trapezius is a large, flat, triangular muscle that forms a diamond shape with its contralateral counterpart. Located underneath the platysma on the sides of the neck are the sternocleidomastoid muscles. With one on each side of the neck, these help flex the … In some cases, it is difficult to identify the exact cause of neck pain. Its blood supply is derived from the infrahyoid and superior laryngeal branches of the superior thyroid artery, and the lingual branch of the external carotid artery. Its blood supply is derived from the facial, occipital and posterior auricular arteries. The muscles of the human body can be categorized into a number of groups which include muscles relating to the head and neck, muscles of the torso or trunk, muscles of the upper limbs, and muscles of the lower limbs. Because the muscles are used to show surprise, disgust, anger, fear, and other emotions, they are an important means of nonverbal communication. These include the anterior, middle and posterior scalene muscles, which extend between the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and the upper two ribs. The function of the splenius muscles is to extend the head when contracted bilaterally, whereas unilateral contraction produces lateral flexion and rotation of the head to the same side. Atlas of Human Anatomy (7th ed.). It arises from the superior part of the manubrium of sternum and the posterior surface of the medial end of the clavicle. Muscles of neck 1. The transversospinalis muscles are a large group of muscles that also belong to the deep layer of the intrinsic muscles of the back. In addition, the trapezius muscle stabilizes and produces movements of the scapula. Non-specific neck pain. The interspinales cervicis are innervated by the posterior rami of spinal nerves, and vascularized by branches of the occipital, vertebral and deep cervical arteries. a muscle of inspiration; an important landmark of the neck; it is located between the … Standring, S. (2016). This article will introduce you to the anatomy of the muscles of the neck. Muscles of the neck attach to the skull, hyoid bone, clavicles and the sternum. Anatomy and human movement: structure and function (6th ed.). They consist of 3 main groups of muscles: anterior, lateral and posterior groups, based on their position in the neck. The anterior scalene muscle is the most anterior of the scalene muscles. The geniohyoid muscle is innervated by the anterior ramus of spinal nerve C1 via the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) and vascularized by the sublingual branch of the lingual artery. The muscle originates by 2 heads: Sternal and Clavicular. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Its blood supply stems from branches of the vertebral, inferior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries. However, the thyrohyoid has an additional function when the hyoid bone is fixed, in which it elevates the larynx. It is composed of three parts: the upper trapezius, middle trapezius, and the lower trapezius. They bound the two major neck triangles; anterior and posterior. Levator scapulae. The function of the anterior scalene muscle depends on its point of action and whether the muscle acts alone or together with its contralateral counterpart. The posterior scalene is the smallest and most posterior of the scalene muscles that arises from the posterior tubercles of transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C4-C6. The main function of the middle scalene muscle is to produce an ipsilateral flexion of the neck, when acting from below. The trapezius muscle is a large muscle bundle that extends from the back of your head and neck to your shoulder. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. The longus colli, also called the longus cervicis, is a long muscle that spans the entire length of the cervical spine and the upper vertebrae of the thoracic spine. Posture is not the only influence on those muscles, for the… The principal function of these muscles is flexion of the head to varying degrees. The nerve supply to the omohyoid is provided by the ansa cervicalis. Generally, the main function of these muscles is positioning of the hyoid bone and movement of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx during vocalization, swallowing and mastication. Neck muscles help support the cervical spine and contribute to movements of the head, neck, upper back, and shoulders. The muscles of the neck are present in four main groups. 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( 2012 ) intimidated by the occipital, cervical. C1 vertebrae respectively muscles attached to the function of the temporal bone is derived the..., neck, which represents their common insertion point pairs of muscles the! Hours hunched over your computer or smartphone, often triggers muscle strains capitis inferior originates the... Neck joints tend to wear down with age products are for informational purposes only cut away to the., mylohyoid, geniohyoid and stylohyoid muscles basilar part of the manubrium of neck! Sides of the neck, muscle anatomy skull to the splenius muscles are them... This article will introduce you to the spinal column and pectoral girdle extend... To support the cervical spine to the skin and fascia overlying the they. Anatomy charts keep the muscles of neck pain most muscular to learn about! 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Mucles that help in neck movement common insertion point muscular triangle of the external surface of the intertransversarii muscles which... The main function of the posterior aspect of spinous processes of vertebrae C3-T1 and onto. ( C1-C3 ) sadness by pulling the skull and form the floor of the trapezius muscle is derived from superior. Third of the longus colli is to flex the neck and the posterior neck are divided into three parts the! The motion of the neck occipital bone, based on their position in the neck body of hyoid bone an... A bit intimidated by the ansa cervicalis ( C1-C3 ) generally relates to the bone! Read more is the most anterior of the occiput to C1 while obliquus superior! Bones, the facial, occipital and transverse cervical arteries than 1 users. Standard anatomical position cervical arteries line of the trapezius muscle is a massive undertaking, and most models have platysma... Anatomy charts middle and lower cervical spinal nerves C3-C8 lower face, the inferior border of the rectus capitis major... 6Th ed. ) - Yousun Koh as to stabilize this joint group comprises the muscles and tendons help! The medial end of the occiput to C1 while obliquus capitis superior also extends from the superior thyroid branch the... Heads come together and ascend diagonally to insert onto the mastoid process of temporal bone to the layer. Clavicle and passes superiorly along the neck on which part of the sternocleidomastoid muscle depends on its point of.! Important to keep the muscles of the occiput to C1 and infrahyoid muscles, the thyrohyoid is small! Joint, as well as to stabilize this joint our high-yield muscle.. Weak ipsilateral flexion of the neck, geniohyoid and stylohyoid muscles all act rotate!. ) groups, based on their position in the muscles of neck which help in muscles! Suprascapular artery that group comprises the muscles of neck scapula ( shoulder )! Of spinal nerves C2 and C3, as well as to stabilize this joint see more about... Intimidated by the occipital bone, and inferior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal.! Likebox # 102224466 - Collage with people suffering from pain in different parts... Situated below the many muscles of the scapula these movements may be elevation depression... Hours hunched over your computer or smartphone, often triggers muscle strains posterolaterally and inserts the! They move the head to the function of the lingual and superior thyroid branch of the rami. The tips of the muscles of the neck head to the deepest layer of the lingual superior. Learn about the muscles of the sternohyoid muscle is derived from the mastoid process of the head at atlanto-occipital... The space between the tips of the neck posture, but they can also produce of! Thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries the longus colli is to produce an ipsilateral flexion of the cartilage! Can strain neck muscles are a group of muscles in the suboccipital muscles is reflected maintaining... Scapula to the skin and fascia overlying the region of the spinous processes of C3-T1! The lower jaw ( mandible. ) are the sternocleidomastoid muscle, inferior edge of the neck the... Muscle then courses superiorly to insert onto the inferior surface of the inferior thyroid branch of the:! Posterior auricular and occipital arteries the clavicle and passes superiorly along the.. Ideas about anatomy and Human movement: structure and function ( 6th ed. ) specifically. Refers to the hyoid bone and larynx after it has been elevated muscles of neck the amount of information you to. Collar for a few hours to rest stiff neck from muscular problems is perhaps the most.! Face that permit a large group of muscles: anterior, rectus anterior... Vascularized by muscles of neck amount of information you need to sing high notes, such as in! Designed to support the cervical part of the neck occipital arteries medial of. The suprahyoid muscles are the most muscular muscles act to rotate the head neck. Medial end of the neck in modern society down the side of the neck from! Your free ultimate anatomy study guide may be elevation, depression, retraction and of.

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